m Surinam
Black, Creole, Mulatto
Mixed Race Creoles-- Today
Augustine Metoyer
Louisiana Creole
W.E. Du bois
Indian Ocean Creoles
Pres. Elect Obama
Langston Hughes
19th Centuary Mulatto --- Library of Congress
Locklear Art Gallery
19th Centuary free Creole
Central American Mestizo/Creoles
The Beliz Creole
Miss Puerto Rico / Miss Universe
Afro/Cuban Creole

Dominican Republic Creole Mulatto

Suzan Malveaux
Byonce..Louisiana Creole
Caribbean Creoles
Australian Creoles
Louisiana Creole
Brazilian Creoles /Mulattos
Creoles International
Metoyer Family Creole
Louisiana Creole
Louisiana Creole
Our Indian Heritage
Creole in Our Veins

The Haitian / Louisiana Creole Connection / Link








jean babtiste Du Sable


Famous Haitians
















Related links






The Missing link

between The New Orleans Creoles of Color and the Haitian Creole of Color ( Metis )



The History of Haiti parallels that of the French colony of New Orleans in that they were both managed by the French West India Company a Private Company entrusted by the King of France to administer and Manage it's colonies for profit . However in Haiti there were Hugh Plantations that grew and produced coffee, sugar and indigo that made it one of the richest French Colonies in the New World.

France a Latin Culture with a History of a more Race tolorent society eventually developed on the Island of Saint-Domingue,a three tired society...White, Black and the Saint-Domingue’s free people of color, the

gens de couleur, who numbered more than 28,000 by 1789.It was this Group that possessed the same Cultural and ethnioc Characteristics as the Free People of Color in New Orleans..They were most usually Born into freedon were never slaves and were educated in france by their French Fathers .

.Once educated in france by their White French Fathers They returned to their Countries to start and manage their business's and to also educate and establish communitiy relationships with their People...After the revolution many of them migrated to New Orleans where they were able to mix with the Louisiana Creoles and The free Man of color.They brough their Culture ,their wealth and all they had and contributed to New Orleans and it's Rich Heritage ..



Most historians have classified the people of the era into three groups.


the first group was ......the white colonists, or blancs.


A second group ........ was the free blacks (usually mixed-race, known as mulattoes or gens de couleur libres, free people of color).

These tended to be educated, literate and often served in the army or as administrators on plantations. Many were children of white planters and slave mothers. The males often received education or artisan]

Many of them were also artisans and overseers, or domestic servants in the big houses. Some slaves were of a creole elite class of urban slaves and domestics, who worked as cooks, personal servants and artisans around the plantation house. This relatively privileged class was chiefly born in the Americas, while the under-class born in Africa labored hard under abusive conditions. training, sometimes received property from their fathers, and freedom.


The third group, ...... outnumbering the others by a ratio of ten to one, was made up of mostly African-born slaves.

A high rate of mortality among them meant that planters continually had to import new slaves. This kept their culture more African and separate from other people on the island. They spoke a patois of French and West African languages known as Creole, which was also used by native mulattoes and whites for communication with the workers.


The Exodus of the Free People from Haiti to New Orleans

In the early 1800s, thousands of refugees, including free people of color and white planters, of whom some in both categories owned slaves which they brought with them, settled in New Orleans, adding many new members to Louisianas French-speaking mixed-race and African population.These Haitian immiagrants brought with them a mord refined Culture. They were very well educated, Business owners , wealthy and possesse skills that













The life of the Black Man in the Haitian Colony, under french Rule

Saint-Domingue was the richest colony in the world, with the most productive plantation system in the West Indies. Its plantations grew mainly sugar and indigo.  Its slave system was among the most brutal and oppressive in the world.

 As the plantations were immense and the slaves often first-generation Africans (due to the high mortality rate among the slaves), the slaves of Saint-Domingue had their own strong cultural traditions, which were still closely tied to African languages, religions and culture.

As was common on the Caribbean islands, the blacks massively outnumbered the whites, and the plantations were huge. There were 20,000- to 40,000 whites — mixed planters and poorer whites, often craftsmen. Planters often owned plantations composed of hundreds or even thousands of slaves.

There were about 30,000 free people of color.  The free people of color were about half mulattoes (the mixed-race children of slave women and French masters, who had usually been freed by their fathers), and half freed slaves who had purchased their freedom, or were descended from those who had.

The free people of color were a relatively wealthy but deeply resented group. They could themselves own slaves, and were often pro-slavery.  They tended to dress and act in a French manner and shun the cultural and religious traditions of the slaves.

There were at least 500,000 slaves in Saint-Domingue in 1791, laboring under one of the most brutal slave systems anywhere. They outnumbered the whites 10 to 1. While there was a significant class of domestic servants, who occupied a higher social class in slave society, the vast majority of the slaves were field hands.

The free people of color were a relatively wealthy but deeply resented group. They could themselves own slaves, and were often pro-slavery.  They tended to dress and act in a French manner and shun the cultural and religious traditions of the slaves.











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The Louisiana Cuban, Haitian Link

During The Haitian Revolution in 1804 Many Free People of Color and slaves fled Haiti for Louisiana and Cuba only to be deported again to New Orleans and then back to Cuba




Saint-Domingue Refugees

In 1809 and 1810 over 10,000 French Saint-Domingue refugees came to New Orleans, doubling the city's population. These immigrants originally fled war-torn Saint-Domingue in 1803, as black slaves emerged victorious in the Haitian Revolution, the only successful long-term slave revolt in the Americas.

The refugees first settled in nearby Cuba but left six years later when Spanish authorities expelled them in retaliation for Napoleon's invasion of Spain. This group was made up of about equal numbers of whites, free blacks, and slaves.

Saint-Domingue Refugees

Free Blacks from Saint-Domingue
c. 1790

Black refugees to Louisiana brought with them elements of African and Haitian culture in the form of voodoo/hoodoo practices, shotgun house architecture, and the language, oral traditions, and dance steps of Mardi Gras Indian rites.

New Orleans was the first place that voodoo appeared in North America. As an African religious system, voodoo helps keep the living in harmony with their spirit ancestors and with nature. Dahomean people brought their religion of vodu from West Africa to Saint-Domingue and then to New Orleans in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Both black and white New Orleanians employed the services of the famed Marie Laveau and other voodoo priests and priestesses. Laveau was said to have often sold charms, including blue glass beads and pierced coins, to ward off evil spirits and to have staged elaborate rituals behind her house in the French Quarter.




















We Are the World..Haiti...A Creole speaking Country




Louisiana...The Mixing of the Races





The Diversity of the African People

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