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Mulatto /Creole Settlers of the Americas'




The Making of America

Who really did settle California ??


While numerous Ranchos undoubtedly belonged to people of Black ancestry at some time in the past, the following are known to have been owned by those of African- mulatto descent:

The Pico Family:

This family, for whom Pico Boulevard in Los Angeles is named, is probably the most famous. The sons of Los Angeles founder Santiago de la Cruz Pico, a mestizo, and his mulatto wife Maria de la Bastida, acquired the first Rancho in what is now Ventura County.

The Pico brothers owned a number of large Ranchos, including Rancho Jamul in San Diego, San Onofre (the nuclear plant) and Rancho Santa Margarita (which became Camp Pendleton), Los Coyotes and Rancho Paso de Bartolo Viejo (a large portion of the City of Whittier), and half of the San Fernando Valley. An uncle, Jose Dolores Pico, owned a Rancho in Salinas. In 1845, a grandson, Pio Pico, became Governor of California.

Manuel Nieto:

The mulatto son of a Black man and a Spanish woman, he owned Rancho Los Alamitos and Rancho Los Cerritos for a total of 167,000 acres of grazing land, southeast of Los Angeles. Rancho Los Cerritos encompassed the land that is now known as the City of Long Beach.

Francisco Reyes:

A mulatto, he owned Rancho San Fernando, which formed a large portion of the (now) San Fernando Valley. In the 1790s he sold it, and later became the mayor of Los Angeles.

Jose Bartolome Tapia:

The son of Felipe Tapia, a mulatto, and Juana Cardenas, a mestiza, he owned Rancho Malibu.

Tiberio Tapia:

Grandson of a Black man and a mestiza, he owned Rancho Cucamonga near Los Angeles, and served 3 times as mayor of Los Angeles.

Maria Rita Valdez:

Her Black grandparents (Luis Quintero) were among the founders of Los Angeles, and she owned Rancho Rodeo de Las Aguas, now known as Beverly Hills.


Mexico's Mulattos'


How California got it's name


The Discovery of California

when the explorer Cortes landed with his crew in what is known today as Baja California, it is said that he announced to his men (of which 300 were of African descent) that they had arrived in Califia's land.

By 1770, the entire Pacific coast controlled by Spain had been given the name California, and the Spanish speaking people who lived there were called Californios. A portion of the original of this document was translated by Edward Everett Hale for The Antiquarian Society, and the story was printed in the Atlantic Monthly magazine in 1864.




Mission Dolores
The City Seal








The Founding of

San Francisco Califorina


a Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European discovery of San Francisco Bay.[8] Seven years later, on March 28, 1776 the Spanish established a fort, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores).

After 130 days and nearly two thousand miles, the expedition reached the Monterey Presidio and Mission San Carlos del Carmelo on March 11, 1776. Despite accomplishing the treacherous journey, the colonists were forced to wait several months before finally calling San Francisco their home. Ignoring Anza's enthusiastic report, Rivera refused to grant them permission to establish a settlement. Citing his own 1774 exploration of the bay, Rivera declared San Francisco unsuitable for colonization.

Ironically, it would not be Anza who led the expedition into San Francisco Bay. Frustrated with the bureaucratic games and regarding the major part of his task completed, Anza departed for Mexico in April 1776. Rivera relented and on June 17, with Lieutenant Moraga in the lead, the colonists departed for San Francisco bay. Ten days later, they reached their new home and began the task of building Mission San Francisco de Aísi.

Over the next five years, enough settlers, soldiers, and cattle followed Anza's trail. Two new pueblos were founded, San Jose and Los Angeles



San Francisco California

Original Settlers (Pobladores)

of Pueblo De San Francisco


José Aceves, mulato,.... from Valle de San Bartolo [Chihuahua], 26.

Pablo Aceves, mulato,...... from Culiacán, 18, single.

José Aguila, español,......... from Ahualulco [Jalisco] 22; wife María Remigia Vásquez, mestiza, [from Alta California] {born 1 October 1776, christened M. Dolores} 14.

Justo Altamirano, mulato,....... from Aguage [Sonora], 45, widower {wife was María Loreto Delfin, died 9 July 1788}.

Pedro Amador, sergeant, español,............. from Cocula [Jalisco], 51;wife Ramona Noriega, española, [from Loreto] 30; seven children: [Juan Pablo] 12; [José Fructuoso] 10; [María Antonia] 14; [María del Carmen] 7; [José Sinforoso] 4; [María Sinforosa] 2; [María Ignacia] three months {born 23 July 1790}.

José Argüello, ...........lieutenant in command, español, from Querétaro, 35; wife Doña Ignacia Moraga, española, [from Altar, Sonora] 25; five children: [Joaquín Máximo] 8; [Luis Antonio] 6; [Gervasio] 4; [Ana Gertrudis] 2; [María Jesús] {Maria Ysavel/Ysabel} 1.

Alejandro Arriola, mestizo......, from Valle de San Bartolo [Chihuahua], 29, single.

Apolonio Bernal, mestizo,........ from Villa Sinaloa, 25, single.

Francisco Bernal, mestizo,....... from Villa Sinaloa, 27; wife María Petronila Gutiúrrez, india, [from Culiacán] 25; one child: [Apolinario] 8.

Joaquín Bernal, mestizo,......... from Villa Sinaloa, 28; wife María Joséfa Sanchez, española, [from Villa Sinaloa] 21; two children: [Encarnación Dolores] 3; [Ana María] 2.

Juan Bernal, mestizo,......... from Rancho del Tule [Sonora], 53; wife María Josefa de Soto, española, [from Villa Sinaloa] 40; one child: ____ 8.

Nicolás Berreyesa, mestizo,....... from Villa Sinaloa, 29; wife María Gertrudis Peralta, española, [from Sonora] 24; five children: [José Reyes] 8; [Nasario] 4; [Nicolás] 1; [Gabriela] 9; [María de la Luz] 7.

Ramón Bojórquez, retired soldier, mestizo,........ from Villa Sinaloa, 58; wife Francisca Romero, mestiza, [from Villa Sinaloa] 52; one child; [Margarita] 8 {grandchild}.

Manuel Boronda, español,........ from Jerez [Zacatecas], 40; wife Gertrudis Higuera, española, [from Villa Sinaloa] 13.

Manuel Buitrón {aka Butron}, .......retired soldier, from Orihuela [Spain], 54; wife Margarita, india, [from Alta California] {neofita from Monterey, baptized in 1773} 34; two children: [Manuel] 14; [Sebastián] 11.

José María Castelo, mestizo.......... from Ahuacatlán [Nayarit], 19, single.

Marcos Chavoya, corporal, español,.......... from Mexico City, 34; wife María Teresa Bernal, mestiza, [from Villa Sinaloa] 17; one child:[Pedro Regalado] four months {born 21 May 1790}.

Francisco Flores, mestizo........., from Santa María del Oro [Chihuahua], 20, single.

Nicolás Galindo, corporal,. mestizo,.......... from Real

de Santa Eulalia [Chihuahua], 47;............ wife María Teresa Pinto, mulata,....... [from Villa Sinaloa] 34; six children: [Venancio] 15; [Francisco Adriano] 13; [José Rafael] 11; [Juan Crisóstomo] 9; [José Leandro] 7; [Alejandro Fidel] 4.

Ignacio Higuera, español,........ from Villa Sinaloa, 33; wife María Micaela Bojórquez, mestiza, [from Villa Sinaloa] 28; two children: [José Loreto] 11; [María Antonia] 9.

Juan José Higuera, español,........ from Villa Sinaloa, 20, single.

Salvador Higuera, español, ...........from Loreto, 38; wife Ursula Lugo, española, [from Villa Sinaloa] 30; two children: [Nicolás] 8; [María Joséfa] 6.

Ignacio Linares, indio, from Horcasitas [Sonora], .........45; wife María Gertrudis Rivas, española, [from Río Chico, Sonora] 38; eight children: [Salvador] 15; [Mariano] 7; [Santos] 6; [Marcela] 9; [Francisca Saturnina] 8; [Nicolasa] 5; [María Antonia] 4; [Rosa] 2.

Ramón Linares, mestizo......., from Horcasitas [Sonora], 19, single.

José María Martínez, mestizo,....... from Sonora, 35; wife

María Garcia, mulata........, [from Culiacán] 18.

Alejo Miranda, indio,........ from Pótam [Yaqui River] 38; wife María de los Santos Gutiérrez, india, [from Culiacán] 22; five children: [Hilario Feliciano] 9; [Lucas] 7; [José Antonio] 3; [Guadalupe Feliciana]{Maria Guadalupe} 2; [María Odorica] nine months {born 3 Feb 1790}.

José Ortiz, mestizo,....... from Lagunilla [Jalisco], 23, single.

Bartolo Pacheco, español,....... from Terrenate [Sonora], 25; wife María Francisca Soto, española, [from Villa Sinaloa] 18; two children: [Petra] 2; [Perfecta] 1 {born 18 April 1790}.

Ignacio Pacheco, español,....... from Fronteras [Sonora] 30; wife María Dolores Cantúa, mestiza, [from Santa Ana, Baja California] 16; one child: [Francisco Ignacio] 1 {born 3 April 1790}.

Miguel Pacheco, corporal, español,......... from Fronteras [Sonora], 36; wife Juana María Sánchez, española, [from Alta California]{born in San Francisco, 20 August 1776} 14.

Gabriel Peralta,......... retired corporal, español, from Terrenate [Sonora], 55; wife María Francisca Valenzuela, española, [from Terrenate, Sonora] 51.

Luis María Peralta, corporal, español, ........from Tubac [Sonora], 32; wife María Loreta Alviso, española, [from Horcasitas, Sonora] 19; three children: [Crisanto] 3; [Teodora] 5; [Trinidad] 1.

Pedro Peralta, español,........... from Tubac [Sonora], 26; wife María del Carmen Grijalva, española, [from Terrenate, Sonora] 19; three children: [Juan Pablo] 4; [Tomasa] 2; [Luisa] two months {born 25 Aug 1790}.

José Miguel Saez {aka Sais and Saenz}, español.........., from Villa Sinaloa, 18, single.

José Antonio Sanchez, español,....... from Guadalajara, 39; wife María Dolores Morales, española, [from Villa Sinaloa] 34; four children: [José Antonio] 17; [Pilar] 11; [María Juana] 9; [Ramona] 7.

Ignacio Soto, español,........... from Villa Sinaloa, 41; wife María Bárbara Espinosa, española, [from Villa Sinaloa] 30; fourteen children: [José Antonio] 17; [Francisco José] 14; [Francisco María] 13; [Dámaso] 12; [Isidro] {Isidoro, actual age: 10} 8; [José Joaquín] 7; [Tomás Antonio] 3; [José Antonio]{Juan José Antonio} 2; [Rafael] 1; ____ 10; [Rafaela] 9; [Ana Josefa] 6; [María Bernarda] 5; [María Fernanda Dolores] four months {born 29 May 1790}.

Francisco Valencia, español,.............. from Bayoreca [Sonora], 22; wife María Victoria Higuera, española, [from Villa Sinaloa]{born in Monterey, 27 February 1775} 15.

Don Ramón Laso de Vega, alférez, español,.......... from Durango, 34, single.

Agustín, indio,........... from San Vicente [Baja California], 20, married.

Carlos, indio,............ employee of the Presidio, from San Diego, 60, married.

Nicolás, indio,............ prisoner at this Presidio, from San Gabriel, 40.








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