At the Congress of Angostura in 1819, liberator Simon
Bolivar was elected president of Venezuela and planned
a strategy that would free the Americas of European
domination.He also found it necessary to clarify Americas
racial heritage: It is impossible to say
to which human family we belong.
The larger part of the
Native population has disappeared, Europeans have mixed
with the Indians and the Negroes, and Negroes have mixed
with the Indians. We were all born of one mother America,
though our fathers had different origins, and we all
have differently colored skins. This dissimilarity is
of the greatest significance.
Europe / Africa / America
A New Race of People
1920s estimate that a third of African Americans have
Indian blood requires new research. Today just about
every African-American family tree has an Indian branch.
The number of Afro-Americans with an Indian ancestor
was once estimated at about one third of the total.
In Latin America the percentage is much higher.
means that an important page in history has been missing.
Three great races - red, white, and black - built the
Americas together. Their contributions and their interrelationships
have filled libraries with scholarly studies, history
texts, and novels.
from: "Black Indians"
By: William Loren Katz
Pardo was also a casta classification used in Colonial Spanish America from the 16th to 18th centuries, and was used to classify a racially mixed individual who did not fall within the racially mixed categories (castes) of Mulatto, Zambo, or Mestizo because a Pardo is a mixture of all 3 colonial races - White, Black, and Amerindian - and not a mix of just 2 races.
The term Pardo was used primarily in small areas of Spanish America whose economy was based on African Slavery during Spain's colonial period.
Definitions of Pardo
According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), Pardo is a broad classification that encompasses Brazilians of mixed race ancestry, mulattos, and assimilated indigenous people ("caboclos"). The term "pardo" was first used in a Brazilian census in 1872. The following census, in 1890, replaced the word "pardo" by mestiço (mixed).
The censuses of 1900 and 1920 did not ask about race, arguing that "the answers largely hid the truth". The question about race reappeared in the 1940 census. In this census, "pardo" was not given as an option, but if the answer was different from the options "white", "black", and "yellow", a horizontal line was drawn into the "colour" box.
When the census data came to be tabulated, all responses with horizontal lines were collected into the single category of "pardo". The term "pardo" was not used as an option as an assurance to the public that census data would not be used for discriminatory purposes, as a result of rising European racism at the time. In the 1950 census, "pardo" was actually added as a choice of answer. This trend remains, with the exception of the 1970 census, which also did not ask about race.
The 20th century saw a large growth of the "pardo" population. In 1940, 21.2% of Brazilians were classified as "pardos". In 2000, they had increased to 38.5% of the population. This is only partially due to the continuous process of miscegenation in the Brazilian population.
Races are molded in accordance with perceptions and ideologies prevalent in each historical moment. In the 20th century, a significant part of Brazilians who used to self-report to be Black in earlier censuses chose to move to the Pardo category. Also a significant part of the population that used to self-report to be White also moved to the Pardo category. Magnoli describes this phenomenon as the "pardização" (pardization) of Brazil.
According to an autosomal DNA study (the autosomal study is about the sum of the ancestors of a person, unlike mtDNA or yDNA haplogroup studies, who cover only one single line), the "pardos" in Rio de Janeiro were found to be predominantly European, at roughly 70% (see table). The geneticist Sérgio Pena criticised foreign scholar Edward Telles for lumping "blacks" and "pardos" in the same category, given the predominant European ancestry of the "pardos" throughout Brazil.
According to him, "the autosomal genetic analysis that we have performed in non related individuals from Rio de Janeiro shows that it does not make any sense to put "blacks" and "pardos" in the same category".
Genomic ancestry of non-related individuals in Rio de Janeiro
Number of individuals
Another autosomal DNA study has confirmed that theEuropean ancestry is dominant throughout in the Brazilian population, regardless of complexion, "pardos" included. "A new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population.
The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%. The results, published by the scientific magazine 'American Journal of Human Biology' by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília, show that, in Brazil, physical indicators such as skin colour, colour of the eyes and colour of the hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies". "Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry.
Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources (African, Amerindian, and European) to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions.
The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model.
Pairwise estimates of F(st) among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions. Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry (0.771) followed by African (0.143) and Amerindian contributions (0.085).
The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations." 
It is important to note that "the samples came from free of charge paternity test takers, thus as the researchers made it explicit: "the paternity tests were free of charge, the population samples involved people of variable socioeconomic strata, although likely to be leaning slightly towards the ‘‘pardo’’ group".
According to another autosomal DNA study conducted on a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro the "pardos" there were found to be on average over 80% European, and the "whites" (who thought of themselves as "very mixed") were found out to carry very little Amerindian and/or African admixtures.
"The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry", say the researchers. In general, the test results showed that European ancestry is far more important than the students thought it would be. The "pardos" for example thought of themselves as 1/3 European, 1/3 African and 1/3 Amerindian before the tests, and yet their ancestry was determined to be at over 80% European. 
An autosomal study from 2011 (with nearly almost 1000 samples from all over the country) has also concluded that European ancestry is the predominant ancestry in Brazil, accounting for nearly 70% of the ancestry of the population. The "pardos" included were found to be predominantly European in ancestry on average. 
The formation of the Brazilian people is marked by a mixture of whites, blacks and Indians. According to geneticist Sérgio Pena "with the exception of immigrants of first or second generation, there is no Brazilian who does not carry a bit of African and Amerindian genetic". The colonization of Brazil was characterised by a small proportion of women among the settlers.
As there was a male predominance in the European contingent present in Brazil, most sexual partners of those settlers were, initially, Amerindian or African women, and, later, mixed-race women. This sexual asymmetry is marked on the genetics of the Brazilian people, regardless of skin color: there is a predominance of European Y chromosomes, and of Amerindian and African MtDNA.
In the 1st century of colonization, there was generalised interbreeding between Portuguese males and Amerindian females in Brazil. However, the Amerindian population was decimated by epidemics, wars and slavery. Since 1550, African slaves began to be brought to Brazil in large numbers.
Brazil Home of The Carnival
Miscegenation between Portuguese males and African females was common. European and Asiatic immigrants who came to Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries (Portuguese, Italians, Spaniards, Germans, Arab, Japanese, etc.) also participated in the process. Among many of the immigrant groups in Brazil, there was a large predominance of men.
A genetic study conducted on White Brazilians suggests that the European and African mixture prevailed in Southeastern and Northeastern Brazil, both the most populous regions of Brazil. European and Amerindian mixture prevailed in Northern and Southern Brazil. Central-Western Brazil was not included in this study. Miscegenation between Whites and Blacks predominated in Brazil in general; however, there are regional exceptions where the indigenous element was more marked. Northern Brazil in general,
Sertão (interior of Northeast) and the Pampa region in the South (Southwest Rio Grande do Sul) are some of the Brazilian areas where the Amerindian element was more important than the African one. However, in all Brazilian regions European, African and Amerindian genetic markers are found in the local populations, even though the proportion of each varies from region to region.
Not all descendants of this mixture of peoples are included in the "parda" category. Since racial classifications in Brazil are based on phenotype, rather than ancestry, a large part of the self-reported White population has African and Amerindian ancestors. Besides skin color, there are social factors that influence the racial classifications in Brazil, such as social class, wealth, racial prejudice and stigma of being Black, Mulatto or Amerindian.[14
In daily usage, Brazilians use the ambiguous term "moreno", a word that means "dark-skinned", "dark-haired", "tawny", "Brown" (when referring to people), "suntanned". "Moreno" is often used as an intermediate colour category, similar to "pardo", but its meaning is significantly broader, including people who self identify as Black, White, Yellow and Indigenous in the IBGE classification system.
In a 1995 survey, 32% of the population self-identified as "moreno", with a further 6% self-identifying as "moreno claro" ("light brown"), and 7% self-identified as "pardo". Telles describes both classifications as "biologically invalid", but sociologically significant.
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