The Word Creole, used to describe blacks and Native born Mulattos did not come into use until the mid 1500's... Click here for definitoin




There are two explanations as to Who were the First Mulattos/Creoles born in the new World..

.One is in fact documented

and the other is Legend that many believe is quite true




The Very First Person to arrive in the new world was the Black Spanisn Navigator Pero (Pedro) Alonso (Peralonso) Niño, the Black navigator of the Nina and Was probably not the only person of mixed Race to acompany Columbus ..Click here




Black conquistadors in early Spanish America...Click here for PDF



The Black Conquistadors



The Legends of Loiza are many but perhaps the most popular one is about the only female Taino Cacique ( chief) named Yuiza ( Yuisa, Loaiza, Luisa, Loiza)..

. Of all the Taino Chiefs of the Caribbean there were only two who were women, only one in Boriken ( Puerto Rico).

Legend has it (that to protect her people) Yuiza became the lover of

(Click on name)

mulatto conquistador

..Pedro Mejias

and because of this she was killed by other Taino Caciques ( who felt she was a traitor to have been with a spaniard). She actually was a hero and greatly admired by her own tribal people, even today.

This may be the legend that gives meaning to the mix in Loiza of black Africans and Taino Indian, or it may, in fact be a historical truth. In actual fact, there are no historical documents to prove this, her marriage with Mejias.



Fact "A"

According to historians, the first free black man arrived in the island in 1509.

Juan Garrido, conquistador

who belonged to Juan Ponce de León's entourage was the first black man to set foot on the island and in the New World.

Fact "B"


Another free black man who accompanied de León was

Pedro Mejías.

It is believed that Mejías married a Taíno woman chief (a cacica) by the name of Luisa.






The beginning of the Mulatto/Creole Race in the Western Hemisphere


The Caribbean Sea

Dedicated to Mr Gilbert Martin , Author of the Creole Chronology


the purpose is to validate the concept that Louisiana Creoles and their decendants are indeed a distinct ethnic group and more over.

the reader shall realize that the color of an individuals skin does not place the individual in a specific culture or remove him from a specific Culture..











Hernando de Soto in the Mississippi Valley, 1541-42




El Conquistador

Negro Juan Garrido

"I, Juan Garrido, black resident [de color negro vecino] of this city [Mexico], appear before Your Mercy and state that I am in need of making a probanza to the perpetuity of the king [a perpetuad rey], a report on how I served Your Majesty in the conquest and pacification of this New Spain,

from the time when the Marqués del Valle [Cortés] entered it; and in his company I was present at all the invasions and conquests and pacifications which were carried out, always with the said Marqués, all of which I did at my own expense without being given either salary or allotment of natives [repartimiento de indios] or anything else.

As I am married and a resident of this city, where I have always lived; and also as I went with the Marqués del Valle to discover the islands which are in that part of the southern sea [the Pacific] where there was much hunger and privation; and also as I went to discover and pacify the islands of San Juan de Buriquén de Puerto Rico; and also as I went on the pacification and conquest of the island of Cuba with the adelantado Diego Velázquez;

in all these ways for thirty years have I served and continue to serve Your Majesty--for these reasons stated above do I petition Your Mercy. And also because I was the first to have the inspiration to sow maize here in New Spain and to see if it took; I did this and experimented at my own expense."



While the role of people of African descent in Latin America's colonization "is relatively well-known," Peter Gerhard once noted, "it is for the most part an impersonal history." Gerhard's brief biographical essay on Juan Garrido, "A Black Conquistador in Mexico," was his contribution to the personalization of black history in Spanish America.More than two decades later, that process of personalization--and contextualization--still has a long way to go

This article places Juan Garrido in the specific biographical context of black conquistadors who fought and settled in other regions of Spanish America--from Yucatan to Chile--and in the broader historical context of the black experience in Spanish America (see the articles that follow in this issue of The Americas).

The sources for this endeavor are a combination of primary material, mostly the genre of colonial "chronicles" but including a few archival items, and secondary works, some pre-dating Gerhard's essay but some representing recent work.


The article's purpose is thus,

first,...... to marshal the widely scattered evidence on the topic with a view to making the broad and simple--but hitherto inadequately substantiated if not marginalized --point that Africans were a ubiquitous and pivotal part of Spanish conquest campaigns in the Americas;

second......, to articulate whatever patterns are visible in black conquest roles and to locate African participation in the phases of Spanish expansion;

third, argue that such roles should be seen in a longer-term colonial context whose most notable features were the existence of black militias and individuals whom have been termed black counter-conquistadors.






The Conquistadors


Pero (Pedro) Alonso (Peralonso) Niño,

the Black navigator of the Nina.

Was probably not the only person of mixed Race to acompany Columbus .. The First Mulattos in the New World accompanied Columbus on his first voyage ..

Andulasia, was a Moor dominated city in Spain and was the home of many Mixed Race Moorish Conquerers..After the Defeat of the Moors by the Spanish many continued to live there. So it Can be Presumed that many in The crew were mixed Race..



From the very onset of Spanish activity in the Americas, Africans were present both as voluntary expeditionaries and as involuntary colonists. Likewise from the onset, the roles played by people of African descent can be placed in three overlapping categories.

Mass Slavery

The category that would soon include the majority of Blacks in colonial Spanish America was that of the mass slave--that is, slaves shipped en masse to the colonies and forced to work in labor gangs in various industries but most typically on sugar plantations. Beginning as early as 1505, enslaved men and women were imported in increasingly large numbers to the Spanish colonies, at first from the Iberian kingdoms but soon directly from Africa.

King Ferdinand authorized in the first months of 1510 the transportation to Hispaniola of 250 African slaves; thus formally began the trans-Atlantic expansion of a slave trade that would last into the nineteenth century and bring millions of Africans in chains to European colonies in the Americas. That trade is not the immediate topic of this article, but it does provide the broader context to the phenomenon of black conquistadors in Spanish America.

Unarmed Auxillary

The second category of Spanish American Blacks was that of the unarmed auxiliary. These were men and women who were born either in [End Page 173] [Begin Page 175] West Africa or in the Iberian kingdoms, more likely the latter in the early decades after Spaniards first crossed the Atlantic.

They were servants or slaves--though they were more typically the latter and were less likely to acquire their freedom in the Americas than armed auxiliaries, even if the militarized environment of the early conquest years often blurred the line between the armed and unarmed.

The experience of black auxiliaries was markedly different from that of mass slaves for these reasons and because they functioned as individuals, alone or in small groups, as personal dependents or agents of their Spanish masters. Although the condition of slavery was certainly never tolerable, nor is there evidence that any slaves in the Spanish world perceived it as such under any circumstances, some slaves in this category were granted considerable responsibility and relative freedom of movement.


the armed auxiliary of African descent.



The third category, and the focus of this article, is that of the armed auxiliary of African descent. These were men ranging from African-born slaves to Iberian-born free men of mixed racial ancestry (although black women were among the first Africans in the Americas, I have found no evidence of any playing armed roles) .

The enslaved acquired their freedom soon after they began fighting alongside Spaniards, if not before; very few black conquistadors seem to have remained slaves after their participation in the Conquest.

Such men tended to hold predictable posts during and after the Conquest and to become part of early colonial life in certain ways; they are few in number but their lives sufficiently conform to certain patterns for analytical generalizations to be made about them. Nor did the phenomenon of the black conquistador end with the initial series of Spanish conquests; as argued later in this article, it survived in various forms throughout the colonial period and remained an important part of the black experience in Spanish America.



..View the whole PDF file Click here


Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest

Read the Pdf Files


The Moors Click here

Page 4


Brief History of Puerto Rico
Nat Park Service More on the First Black Discoveres Click here
African Aspects of the Puerto Rican Personality
The Black Conquistadors Read The PDF file
Puerto Rico
The Golden Passport...Good reading on the Moors and Spanish conquest



Beautiful Buildings of Seville Spain
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