Creole Chronology


Our Roots in the New World

Very few if Anyone, here in America, knows just When ,Where and how Our Creole Culture came to Be..These chain of events that created our Creole people and culture as listed in Our Creole chronology will, hopefully, provide some answers and shine some light on Our cultural history




The beginning of the Mulatto/Creole Race in the Western Hemisphere

Dedicated to Mr Gilbert Martin , Author of the Creole Chronology


the purpose is to validate the concept that Louisiana Creoles and their decendants are indeed a distinct ethnic group and more over.

the reader shall realize that the color of an individuals skin does not place the individual in a specific culture or remove him from a specific Culture..




The First Creole Slaves




Above: Detail of artist Samuel Lind's 'Yuiza',.......Indian Cacique Chief.




African enslavement

In 1501, the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand I and Isabella, first granted permission to the colonists of the Caribbean to import African slaves, which began arriving to the island in 1503.

These African importees arrived with a rich and ancient culture that has had an influence second only to that of Europe on the racial, political and cultural character of the modern Dominican Republic.

In 1510, the first sizable shipment, consisting of 250 Black Ladinos, arrived in Hispaniola from Spain.

Eight years later African-born slaves arrived in the West Indies.

Sugar cane was introduced to Hispaniola from the Canary Islands, and the first sugar mill in the New World was established in 1516, on Hispaniola.[2] The need for a labor force to meet the growing demands of sugar cane cultivation led to an exponential increase in the importation of slaves over the following two decades. The sugar mill owners soon formed a new colonial elite, and convinced the Spanish king to allow them to elect the members of the Real Audiencia from their ranks. Poorer colonists subsisted by hunting the herds of wild cattle that roamed throughout the island and selling their hides.

The first major slave revolt in the Americas occurred in Santo Domingo during 1522, when enslaved Muslims of the Wolof nation led an uprising in the sugar plantation of admiral Don Diego Colon, son of Christopher Columbus. Many of these insurgents managed to escape to the mountains where they formed independent maroon communities. descended from tainos mixed with runaway Africans, who reached the cacique.




The Creole Slave Girl




The Patrons Saints Day Festival of Loiza Aldea

Traditional folk dance of the Puerto Rican Bomba and the Plena:

History of dance websiteListen to a Bomba!

The Puerto Rican artist most identified with the Afro-Caribbean cultural trends of his home town Loiza, Samuel Lind, has produced a great number of works celebrating dance, carnival and other aspects of Puerto Rican experience. Lind emphasizes the African dimensions of jibaro life. He also paints the mangroves and coconut palm forests, so much a part of coastal Puerto Rico.

Samuel Lind, and his wife are working on establishing a local museum and library for children in Loiza. Lind's work is on display in his studio and in museums and homes throughout Puerto Rico.





African Aspects of the Puerto Rican Personality  



Pero (Pedro) Alonso (Peralonso) Niño,
the Black navigator of the Nina.

Was probably not the only person of mixed Race to acompany Columbus .. The First Mulattos in the New World accompanied Columbus on his first voyage ..

Andulasia, was a Moor dominated city in Spain and was the home of many Mixed Race Moorish Conquerers..After the Defeat of the Moors by the Spanish many continued to live there. So it Can be Presumed that many in The crew were mixed Race..





The Moors Today...

They appear to look very similar to Creole People

.....Click on web site



The Moors and what color were they


The Moors inhabited Europe from 711 AD, until Columbus set sail to the Indies in 1492. They were driven out by the Spaniards, along with the Jews during the Spanish Inquisition, who ordered the burning of the accumulated literature. Hence a people, their history, culture and empire were lost and forgotten. But not in its entirety.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Moors, as early as the Middle Ages and as late as the seventeenth century were, “commonly supposed to be black or very swarthy, and the word often used for Negro.” James E. Brunson and Runoko Rashidi, authors of The Moors of Antiquity wrote, “There is considerable difficulty in determining the ethnicity of the early Moors through terminology alone.”

There are several terms that have been used to identify the Moors. Arabic texts, for example, rarely used the word Moor and instead applied the term Berber (a word thought by some to be pejorative) to the early non-Arab peoples of Northwest Africa.


What Scholars Say

Although scholars generally agree that the word Moor is derived from Mauri, there are profound disagreements among history authors on what the word originally meant and how it was applied. Philip K. Hitti, author of History of the Arabs, contends that the term Moor has a geographic designation meaning Western. He wrote.“The Romans called Western African Mauretania and its inhabitants, Mauri (presumably of Phoenician origin meaning ‘Western’) whence [the] Spanish Moro [and the] English Moor. The Berbers, therefore, were the Moors proper, but the term was conventionally applied to all Moslems of Spain and North-western Africa.”

Some historians described the Berbers as war-like, nomadic and a predatory population stretching from the borders of Egypt to Morocco, and often lived on the borders of the desert and at the foot of mountains.


Some Were Called Berbers

Further research reveals the Moors were not all of Arab and North African mixed blood as many historians report, many of them were black. According to Ivan Van Sertima, associate professor of African studies at Rutgers University, Black Moors were in every corner of Europe. “Most people do not know that the peoples called Berbers by the classical Greek and Roman historians were black and affiliated with the then contemporary peoples of the East African area.”

Although much of the literature about the Berbers was burned, their presence was recorded by the Vikings and many others. Anthropologist, Dana Reynolds traced the African roots of the original North African peoples through a dozen Greek and Byzantine (neo-Roman writers) from the first to the sixth century AD. They describe the Berber population of Northern Africa, as “black-skinned and woolly-haired.”


Black as a Moor

The “Moorish” people, as the blacks were described in the pre-Islamic era, were noted for their skin color by such descriptive phrases as “black as melted pitch” and “blacker than ink,” quoted by Van Sertima in his book Golden Age of the Moor. In certain well-known European epics and histories, the phrase “black as a Moor” was used from Roman times until the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, masqueraders used to blacken their faces, so they might better pass as Moors.

Westerners choose to concentrate on the most recent world of the Arab and Berber-speaking peoples as if it is a world that has always been. The story of when North Africa was Moorish and Arabia (land of Saracens) has yet to be told.


More......Page 6


Questions, Comments, Dead Links? Email Webmaster
**All articles taken from selected reading materials are the sole property of the authors listed. In no way are these articles credited to this site. The material presented is only a brief presentation of writings from the publisher & producer of each article.